Typhoid Fever Vaccines Market – Strategies to Increase Productivity

Typhoid fever, also simply called as typhoid is a bacterial infection caused by Salmonella typhi, also known as Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. The typhoid fever is usually caused due to ingestion of contaminated food or water. Typhoid vaccines prevents typhoid fever and provide protection against it. World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended three typhoid vaccines for use, which include live attenuated vaccine, capsular polysaccharide vaccines, and conjugate vaccine

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Increasing government initiatives promoting and advancing development of innovative products

Organizations such as World Health Organization (WHO), Gavi, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and others are highly active in creating awareness regarding typhoid and driving immunization efforts against such diseases

For instance, in October 2017, WHO recommended introduction of typhoid vaccine for children over six months in endemic countries. It also recommended catch-up vaccination whenever possible, prioritizing children and adolescents up to 15 years of age.

Moreover, World Health Organization (WHO), pre-qualified a typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) Typbar TCV, manufactured by Bharat Biotech in December 2017. WHO pre-qualification enables the procurement and supply of this vaccine to UNICEF, the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), and GAVI (a vaccine alliance) supported countries. Such frequent initiatives taken by various organizations is expected to support the market growth over the forecast period.

High prevalence of typhoid in various emerging economies is expected to rise the demand for typhoid vaccines in near future and fuel global typhoid fever vaccines market growth. For instance, according to the International Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) estimates in 2016, around 12 million cases of typhoid fever were reported resulting in around 130,000 deaths globally

The global typhoid fever vaccines market size was valued at US$ 225.0 Mn in 2018, and is expected to witness a CAGR of 11.9% during the forecast period (2018 – 2026).

Reimbursement Scenario

Vaccination/Immunizations are generally not covered under medicare, unless they are directly related to the treatment of an injury or direct exposure to a disease or condition, such as anti-rabies treatment or tetanus antitoxin or booster vaccine.

In absence of such condition where an injury or direct exposure has happened, vaccination (preventive immunization) against diseases such as smallpox, typhoid and polio, are not covered.

In cases where a vaccination or inoculation is excluded from coverage, the entire charge will be denied (such as office visits, which are primarily for the purpose of administering a non-covered injection).

Market Opportunity

Currently, there is only one typhoid conjugate vaccine that has been prequalified by WHO (Typbar TCV) to treat young children below two years of age. Typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) is more effective at preventing the disease than other available vaccines. It is long lasting, provides protection for at least five years and possibly longer, as compared to just two years for earlier typhoid vaccines.

Childhood vaccination schedules are still devoid of a typhoid vaccine. However, with introduction of Typbar TCV, the scenario is expected to change, as these vaccines would be included in the childhood vaccination schedules giving immunity against typhoid to infants early.

Typhoid conjugate vaccine increased the immunization age range to include children under age two, a particularly vulnerable and typhoid susceptible part of the population. Manufacturers can develop novel typhoid vaccine with better and longer clinical protection, broader target age range (including children <2 years of age), cost effectiveness, and other factors, which are not met by currently available vaccines

Key Players

Key players operating in the typhoid fever vaccines market include GlaxoSmithKline Plc., Sanofi SA, Bharat Biotech, Bio-Med Pvt. Ltd., PT Bio Farma, PaxVax, Inc. Shanghai Institute of Biological Products Co., Ltd., and Prokarium

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Gene Therapy for Rare Disease Market – Expected to Demonstrate the Strongest Growth Rate

In recent past, most of the gene therapies received orphan drug designations. Orphan drugs are generally defined as those medicines with one or more indications approved under the Orphan Drug Act of 1983. The Orphan Drug Act supports the development of innovative treatments for rare disease patients. The creation of the orphan drug designation with the passage of the Orphan Drug Act in 1983 has facilitated the development and approval of drugs for rare diseases and 2017 and 2018, were marked by the highest number of orphan drug and indication approvals to date. Production of gene therapies is associated with use of high-end technologies, high research and development costs, and skilled scientists and researchers, which reflects in high prices of these therapies.

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Market Dynamics

Key players in the market are dedicated to the development of gene therapies for the novel indications such as Huntington’s disease for which there are no specific approved medication. For instance, uniQure N.V. is developing AMT-130, a novel Gene therapy for Huntington’s disease (HD), a rare, fatal, neurodegenerative genetic disorder. AMT-130 is currently in pre-clinical trial and is expected to receive approval in near future. Furthermore, companies are developing novel gene therapies for rare diseases such as Hemophilia B and Hemophilia A, which can offer long term treatment and can replace lifelong medication for this diseases. Launches of such novel therapies in near future is expected to significantly create lucrative opportunity for growth of the market. Moreover, increasing reimbursement support as well as innovative payment options are being adopted by manufacturers such as pay for performance. However, high prices of these therapies and potential challenges in commercialization of these therapies in emerging economies such as Asia Pacific and Latin America may restrain growth of the market

The global gene therapy for rare disease market size was valued at US$ 16.3 million in 2017, and is expected to witness a robust CAGR of 35.0% over the forecast period (2018–2026).

Ongoing research and development in gene therapies for rare diseases is expected to boost growth of the global gene therapy for rare disease market

Presence of multiple novel gene therapies for various rare disease treatment in pipeline, which are expected to gain approval is expected to boost the market growth over the forecast period. For instance, Spark Therapeutics, Inc. is developing gene therapy namely Fidanacogene Elaparvovec, a novel, investigational gene therapy indicated for the treatment of patients suffering from hemophilia B. Currently, the therapy is under Phase 3 clinical trial and is expected to receive approval in near future. In August 2018, uniQure N.V. treated the first patient in its Phase IIb dose-confirmation study of AMT-061, an investigational AAV5-based gene therapy incorporating the FIX-Padua variant for the treatment of patients with severe and moderately severe hemophilia B. In May 2018, Orchard Therapeutics Plc. received Rare Pediatric Disease Designation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its gene therapy candidate OTL-200, indicated for treatment of patients with metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD).  PTC Therapeutics, In. has GT-AADC in phase 3 clinical trials and is indicated for Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency.

Top Key Players

Some of the major players operating in the global gene therapy for rare disease market include Kite Pharma, Inc. (Gilead Sciences, Inc.), Novartis International AG, Juno Therapeutics Inc. (Celgene Corporation), Bluebird Bio, Inc., Spark Therapeutics, Inc., uniQure N.V, Orchard Therapeutics Plc., PTC Therapeutics, Inc., and BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc.

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Plasmapheresis Device Market – Projection of Each Major Segment over the Forecast Period

Plasmapheresis is a procedure in which blood is separated into cells and plasma (liquid). The plasma is then removed and replaced with fresh frozen plasma. It is done to treat variety of autoimmune disorders such as myasthenia gravis, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, sickle cell anemia, guillain-barre syndrome, and lambert- eaton myasthenic syndrome where autoantibodies are generated harming the body. Plasmapheresis can stop this growth of auto antibodies by removing the plasma that contains antibodies and replacing it with new plasma. Plasmapheresis can be performed using a semipermeable membrane-based device in combination with hemodialysis equipment.

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Plasmapheresis Device Market – Drivers

Strategies used by the key players such as acquisitions, is expected to boost growth of the plasmapheresis device market. For instance, on September 2018, Shire plc. (SHP) acquired sanaplasma AG, augmenting plasma collection network. The acquisition of sanaplasma AG is expected to increase Shire’s access to plasma in the longer term and also widens its European plasma collection network, complementing existing core capabilities in plasma supply and manufacturing. This will also help to increase the customer base in the European region which in turn will raise demand for Plasmapheresis devices in the market.

Moreover, Biotest Pharmaceuticals Corporation (BPC), a wholly owned subsidiary of Biotest US Corporation, was acquired by Grifols Shared Services North America, Inc., in August 2018. This acquisition comprises 22 BPC plasma collection centers that manufactures critical care therapies to treat life threatening disorders. This acquisition of BPC will lead to increased availability of number of resources for plasma collections and likely to stimulate the growth of plasmapheresis devices in the global market.

Plasmapheresis Device Market – Regional Analysis

On the basis of region, the global plasmapheresis device market is segmented into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East, and Africa.

North America region is expected to dominate in the global plasmapheresis device market attributed to high prevalence of autoimmune diseases which require frequent plasmapheresis tests. For instance, according to American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association (AARDA) 2017 report, 50 million Americans are suffering from autoimmune disorders.

European region is expected to witness significant growth rate due to increase in the development of plasmapheresis devices. For instance, in October 2016, Fresenius Kabi, a company based in Germany, got FDA approval for its Aurora Xi Plasmapheresis System. The device is designed to improve the process of blood plasma collection, particularly speeding up the filtration process and allowing for more donors to donate in the same amount of time.

Key Players

The key players operating in the plasmapheresis device market are Asahi Kasei Corporation., Terumo Corporation, Baxter International Inc., B. Braun Melsungen AG, Kawasumi Laboratories Inc., Kaneka Corporation, Haemonetics Corporation, Shanghai Dahua Medical Apparatus Co., Ltd., Infomed SA, and Fresenius SE & Co. KGaA

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Single Cell Genome Sequencing Market – Infant Care Analysis and Demand Penetration

Single cell genome sequencing involves isolating a single cell and amplifying and sequencing genes within that single cell. Sequencing single cell carries significant importance as individual cells can differ at great extent in size, protein levels, and expressed RNA transcripts. These variations could provide important insights about several research applications such as cancer research, stem cell biology, immunology, developmental biology, and neurology. Single-cell analysis enables a closer view of the gene expression of individual cells to understand their functions in complex tissues.

Kits and instruments based on technological platform such as Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and others provide high-throughput sequencing of individual cells. Single cell sequencing has significantly evolved with in-depth understanding of genomes and increasing genomic research to trace the root cause of many chronic diseases.

Single Cell Genome Sequencing Market Dynamics

Single cell genome sequencing is one of most focused area of research for finding cure for chronic disease such as cancer as it could help to observe tumor microenvironment. According to World Health Organization (WHO), cancer is one of leading non-communicable disease and second leading cause of death, worldwide. According to a report by International Age for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2012, around 14.1 million new cases of cancer were registered with around 8.8 million death and around 32.6 million people are living with cancer in the year 2012.

Introduction of new therapies for the treatment of cancer such as personalized medicine (Immuno-oncology and others.) is expected to increase the adaption of single cell genomic sequencing for advancing research in order to observe cellular level changes in cancer cells.

Furthermore, application of single cell genomic sequencing in other diseases such as immune system disorder and infectious diseases (Tuberculosis, meningococcal disease, and others.) is a key factor contributing to the market growth. According to statistics given by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2017 Vital Signs, around 54.4 million U.S. adults suffer from arthritis – which is equivalent to 25% of the U.S. population. Rheumatoid arthritis which is leading autoimmune disorder holds significant share in the overall arthritis prevalence.

Single Cell Genome Sequencing Market – Regional Insights

On the basis of Geography, single cell genome sequencing market is segmented into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East, and Africa. North America is expected to be dominant in the market during forecast period. High prevalence of different types of cancer is witnessed in the U.S. According to a report by American cancer Society, 2018, cancer is the second leading cause of death after cardio vascular disease. The report further projected around 1.7 million new cases of cancer with around half million deaths, worldwide.

Single cell genome sequencing is utilized by several research institutes and commercial companies for revealing changes at gene level in single cell which could lead to potential therapies and access to develop new medicines.

Moreover, key players that offer cutting edge technologies such as NGS technology, q PCR technology and high commercial and academic research spending are present in the U.S, which is expected to accelerate the market growth.

Single Cell Genome Sequencing Market – Competitive Landscape

Key players operating in the single cell genome sequencing market include, Illumina, Inc., Fludigim Corporation, Thermo Fisher Scientific, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Inc., QIAGEN, Bio-Rad Laboratories, 10x Genomics, Novogene, BGI, Oxford Nanopore Technologies, and Pacific Biosciences

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Non-Insulin Therapies for Diabetes Market to Witness Growth Acceleration

Non-insulin therapies are mostly used in type 2 diabetes patients, where body either does not produce enough insulin or is unable to effectively use the insulin it produces. Non-insulin-based medication works with different mechanism of action to reduce blood glucose level and maintain it for optimum glycemic control. For instance, some agents increase the insulin release from pancreatic cells (Sulfonylureas), some agents increase glucose uptake by periphery and reduces hepatic glucose output (Biguanides), some agents slow down digestion of starch in small intestine (alpha glucosidase inhibitors), and some medication reduces post meal sugar by blocking certain enzymes (Incretin mimetics).

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Non-Insulin Therapies for Diabetes Market Dynamics

Increasing global incidence and prevalence of diabetes is expected to fuel growth of the non-insulin therapies for diabetes market. Non-insulin therapies are mainly used in type 2 diabetes, which accounts for around 90% of the global diabetes cases. According to the International Diabetes Federation’s (IDF) Diabetes Atlas 2017, worldwide prevalence of diabetic patients was around 425 million, of which around 400 million patients were suffering from type 2 diabetes. As per the World Health Organization (WHO) 2017 report, diabetes is one of the top 3 causes of death among non-communicable diseases worldwide, with 114.4 million cases in China, 72.9 million cases in India, and 30.2 million cases in the U.S.

The global economic burden of diabetes is high and is expected to substantially increase over the forecast period. According to the American Diabetes Association research in March 2018, the total costs of diagnosed diabetes have risen to US$ 327 billion in 2017 from US$ 245 billion in 2012. Therefore, non-insulin therapies for diabetes market is expected to witness growth in the near future.

Moreover, companies are launching new products and combination therapies in the market, which is expected to drive growth of the global non-insulin therapies for diabetes market. For instance, in 2017, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Novo Nordisk’s Ozempic (semiglutide), which is once a week GLP-1 analog, would increase the patient compliance. In December 2017, FDA approved the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor called ertugliflozin (Steglatro), which is jointly developed by the Merck & Co. and Pfizer Inc. and in January 2018, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) granted approval for the same in Europe.

Non-insulin Therapies for Diabetes Market: Regional Insights

On the basis of region, the global non-insulin therapies for diabetes market is segmented into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East, and Africa. North America is expected to drive growth of the non-insulin therapies for diabetes market due to highest diabetes expenditure in the U.S. According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), in 2017, around 17,100 new cases of diabetes were detected in the U.S. Asia Pacific is one of the most lucrative region due to increased diabetes burden in China and India, collectively having over 180 million patients suffering from diabetes. According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), rising incidence of type 2 diabetes in South Asia is likely to be over 150% between 2000 and 2035.

Non-insulin Therapies for Diabetes Market: Competitive Landscape

Key players operating in the global non-insulin therapies for diabetes market include AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly and Company, GlaxoSmithKline, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Merck and Company, Novartis AG, Novo Nordisk, Pfizer, Sanofi Aventis, and Takeda Pharmaceuticals.

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Immunostimulatory Adjuvants Market – Increasing Government Initiatives To Prevent Epidemic Due To Various Chronic Diseases

Adjuvant is an integral part of a vaccine that helps to develop strong immune response in the human body. Conventional vaccines are derived from toxin, inactivated whole organism, and live-attenuated, which are effective in stimulating antibody-based immunity. Adjuvants are used to enhance efficiency of vaccines as conventional vaccines are highly reactogenic in nature. Various molecules have been considered for use as an adjuvant, such as mineral salts, oil emulsions, microbial derivatives, particulate adjuvants, and plant derivatives. Based on the mechanism of action, the adjuvants are categorized into two types, which include particulate vaccine delivery systems that specifically target antigen to antigen presenting cells (APCs) and the immunostimulatory adjuvants that interacts with toll like receptors (TLRs) of the cell resulting in inflammatory response that amplify the innate immune response.

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Immunostimulatory Adjuvants Market – Dynamics

Increasing government initiatives to prevent epidemic due to various chronic diseases and increasing national immunization programs around the globe to promote health awareness regarding vaccination among the population has boosted the growth of the immunostimulatory adjuvants market size. For instance, the Global Vaccination Action Plan (GVAP) was endorsed by the heath ministers of 194 member’s states of the world health assembly in 2012. The aim of the Global Vaccination Action plan was to introduce new improved vaccines, advance research work for next generation vaccines, and to strengthen routine immunization. GVAP urges countries to strengthen governance of national immunization programs and to keep up-to-date monitoring of data. Moreover, private organizations intervention at the global scale for the better vaccines research and development has propelled the market growth. For instance, The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2010, pledged US$ 10 billion to support the vaccine research and the development and delivery of vaccines to the underdeveloped countries. Furthermore, increasing prevalence of the chronic disease such as rubella and measles around the globe has significantly bolstered the immunostimulatory adjuvants market growth. For instance, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) facts more than 100,000 children born every year with congenital rubella syndrome mainly in the Western Pacific region, South East Asia, and Africa region. Furthermore, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated around 145,700 deaths globally from measles in 2013. These incidences have led government and national organization to invest more into adjuvant vaccines market significantly. However, strict regulatory requirements and huge investment required for developing a new adjuvant are expected to hinder the growth of global immunostimulatory market.

Immunostimulatory Adjuvants Market – Regional Insights

Based on the region, the global immunostimulatory market is segmented into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East, and Africa. North America immunostimulatory adjuvants market holds the dominant position in terms of revenue. Moreover, Presence of major market players in U.S. region and increasing federal support towards the growth of healthcare sector is propelling growth of the immunostimulatory adjuvant market. For instance, the Center for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) was allocated US$ 324,350,000 in the 2016, for the public health immunization and to increase vaccine coverage among adults, adolescents, and children. Asia Pacific is expected to gain significant market share in the global immunostimulatory adjuvants market, followed by Europe, owing to high prevalence of various chronic disease such as tuberculosis, measles, and rubella. For instance, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) around 2.79 million incidence cases of tuberculosis were registered in India in 2016.

Immunostimulatory Adjuvants Market – Competitive Landscape

Key players operating in the global immunostimulatory adjuvant market include Bayer, Adjuvance Technologies, Vical, Allergy Therapeutics, BioCenturay, and Recenttec. Market players are focused on adopting strategies such as new product launch, collaborations, and mergers to provide innovative products to maintain leading position in the market. For instance, in 2017, Bayer collaborated with Bitkom, to provide digital innovation in the areas of health care.

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Hemodialysis Access Graft – Companies Are Focusing On Acquiring Complementary Business Or Products To Enter The Market

Hemodialysis is one among the three renal replacement therapies used for extracorporeal separation of waste components from the blood in case of kidney failure. Hemodialysis access, also known as vascular access, is a way to access blood for hemodialysis, which can be obtained by three different ways, a fistula, a graft, and a catheter. Hemodialysis access graft are the U-shaped plastic tube used for hemodialysis, which join an artery and veins under the skin of the patient’ arms. Hemodialysis access graft are used in patients with blocked or damaged veins, in which fistula cannot be used. However, hemodialysis access graft do not last as long as fistula, which is expected to be the major factor restraining the hemodialysis access graft market growth. On the other hand, factors that are expected to drive growth include increasing product approvals and rising incidence of chronic kidney disorders. For instance, according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2017 factsheet, 30 million people, which comprises 15% of the U.S. adults are estimated to have chronic kidney disease.

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Hemodialysis Access Graft Market Dynamics

Novel product launches by market players is a major factor expected to fuel growth the hemodialysis access graft market over the forecast period. For instance, in 2013, CryoLife, Inc., received CE mark for the HeRO Graft, for patients with failing fistulas or blocked veins leading to heart. The company claims HeRO graft as the only fully subcutaneous AV access solution. In 2013, Gore & Associates, launched Gore Acuseal vascular graft for vascular access. The key feature of Gore Acuseal vascular graft is it provides early cannulation i.e. within 24 hours of post-implantation, owing to its trilayer design with low-bleed elastomeric membrane sandwiched between two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene layers. Various companies are adopting trilayer design to sustain in the hemodialysis access graft market. Thus, this can be a growth opportunity for emerging and new entrants in the market.

Increasing incidence of end stage renal disease and other kidney related disorders is a major factor driving growth of the hemodialysis access graft market. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) factsheet 2017, in 2014, the number of people undergoing treatment for end stage renal diseases were 118,000 in the U.S. and 662,000 were surviving on chronic dialysis or with kidney transplant. According to University of California, 2013, end stage renal disease is increasing by 5% per year in the U.S. In 2013, according to The Renal Association UK Renal Registry, around 57,000 adults in the U.K. were on treatment for kidney failure of which 42% were receiving hemodialysis.

Hemodialysis Access Graft Market – Regional Analysis

Regional segmentation of hemodialysis access graft market by Coherent Market Insights includes North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East, and Africa. North America hemodialysis access graft market is expected to hold a dominant position over the forecast period. This is owing to high prevalence of kidney failure in the region. For instance, according to National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK), 2015, in America, around 661,000 Americans suffer from kidney failure, of which 468,000 individuals are on dialysis. However, Asia Pacific hemodialysis access graft market is expected to witness fastest growth, due to large patient pool suffering from diabetes, which increases the chances of renal failure. According to World Health Organization (WHO) 2017 bulletin, South-East Asian population is exhibiting drastic increase in prevalence of diabetes. For instance, the prevalence of diabetes was 46,903,000 in year 2000, which is expected to be 119,541,000 by 2030. This is expected to create a conducive environment for growth of the market in the region.

Hemodialysis Access Graft Market – Competitive Analysis

Key players operating in the global hemodialysis access graft market are W.L. Gore & Associated, C. R. Bard, Merit Medical Systems, Inc. and Getinge Group.

Companies are focusing on acquiring complementary business or products to enter the market. For instance, in 2016, Merit Medical Systems, Inc., a manufacturer and marketer of proprietary disposable medical devices used for interventional and diagnostic procedures, acquired HeRO Graft and its related assets from Cryolife, Inc., for US$ 18.5 million. Furthermore, in 2011, Atrium Medical was acquired by Getinge Group for US$ 680 million. The acquisition of Atrium is a strategic move by Getinge Group to leverage scientific and technological advances of both the companies and company will also get access to vascular grafts of Atrium Medical.

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Pediatric Vaccines Market – Raising Awareness Regarding Immunization And Development Of Novel Adjuvants

Pediatric vaccines perform significant role in reduction of various childhood infectious disease such as measles, diphtheria, Poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Increasing adoption of pediatric vaccines have significantly led to increase in global vaccination coverage. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), immunization helps to prevent around 2 to 3 million deaths annually. Moreover, vaccination is the most cost–effective and efficient heath investment, which is accessible to hard-to-reach locations and vulnerable populations. According to the data published by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in April 2014, vaccination was estimated to prevent around 21 million hospitalizations and around 732,000 deaths among children born between 1994 and 2013. High prevalence of infectious disease, combined with increasing numbers of government initiatives for raising awareness regarding immunization and development of novel adjuvants and therapeutic vaccines are expected to drive growth of pediatric vaccines market during the forecast period.

The global pediatric vaccines market was valued at US$ 23,317.0 million in 2017 and is expected to witness a CAGR of 10.8% over the forecast period (2018 – 2026)

Increasing government initiatives for pediatric vaccines are projected to fuel market growth

Government of various economies, healthcare regulatory organizations, and private organizations are focused on reducing rate of pediatric disease, which is expected to propel demand for pediatric vaccine over the forecast period. For instance, in 2013, World Health Organization (WHO): Europe launched the flu Awareness Campaign initiative to spread awareness regarding flu among the European population. In 2002, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) initiated the Social Mobilization Network (SMNet) in India, in order to irradiate the polio from India. Furthermore, according to the data published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases in July 2017, Social Mobilization Network resulted in increasing immunization coverage in the high-risk areas of India from 36% in 2009 to 81% in 2016 in Uttar Pradesh and from 54% in 2009 to 88.5% in 2016 Bihar. As pediatric vaccines contribute in significant reduction of pediatric infectious, numbers of vaccine preventable infectious disease are minimized using vaccination programme. However, mortality associated with such infectious disease is reported in some of the countries.

For instance, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) May 2018 data findings, measles are constantly present disease in the U.S. since 2000. In December 2014, the U.S. experienced measles outbreak, owing to unvaccinated visitors who can carried the disease in the U.S from other countries or unvaccinated U.S. people returning to U.S. from countries where measles is still common, such as in Europe, Asia Pacific, and Africa. For instance, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 2014, around 667 measles cases were reported from 27 states in the U.S. to CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD). This is the highest number of cases since measles elimination was documented in the U.S. in 2000. According to the same source, in 2017, around 118 people from 15 states of U.S. and the District of Columbia reported measles cases.

Pediatric Vaccines Market Regional Outlook

On the basis of geography, the global pediatric vaccines market is segmented into six major regions: North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, Middle East, and Africa. North America is expected to hold strong foothold in this market, owing to high presence of various key pediatric vaccine manufactures, extensive research and development (R&D) by research organizations, and rise in the government supports for immunization and development of pediatric vaccines.

Asia Pacific is expected to emerge as a major market player in the near future, owing to growing engagement of government and private organizations to initiate awareness campaign and nationwide vaccination program. For instance, in February 2017, Government of India in collaboration with The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO), initiated the campaign to prevent children from pediatric disease such as measles and rubella. Under the campaign, children aged between nine months and 15 years will be administered the measles-rubella vaccine (MR-VAC).

Top Players

Some of the major companies operating in the pediatric vaccines market are GlaxoSmithKline plc, Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd., Eli Lilly Company, AstraZeneca plc, Pfizer, Inc., Aventis Pharma Limited, Indian Immunologicals Limited, Zydus Cadila, Panacea Drugs Pvt. Ltd., and Sinovac Biotech Ltd.

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Porcine Vaccines – High Demand For Gelatin Is Projected To Support The Growth Of The Market

Vaccines are the most imperative mediations for disease control among animals and humans. Under veterinary pharmaceuticals, vaccination is considered as a windfall for maintaining animal health by preventing spread of several endemic diseases. Such diseases which can be endemic are porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV), swine influenza, diarrhea, porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD). Furthermore, cholera, high fever, foot and mouth diseases in swine have been significantly eliminated in North America through immunization.

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Infection of swine with porcine parvovirus (PPV) is reported worldwide, which may lead to reproductive failure in swine or cutaneous lesions in piglets. The first vaccine to aid in the prevention of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) was registered for use in Spain in 1994, since then a number of additional vaccines (comprising either attenuated or inactivated PRRSV) have been developed in the U.S. and Europe. Each includes a different strain of the virus of either the North American or European genotype. According to an article published in NCBI, 2017, around 70% of producers of pig farming are small farmers with farms fewer than 50 pigs each, and hygienic measures and feed of the pigs is not controlled, which is propelling demand of porcine vaccines market.

Porcine Vaccines Market – Driver

Increasing demand for gelatin is projected to support the growth of the market, as porcine gelatin is used as a stabilizer to ensure safety and efficacy of vaccine during storage. Furthermore, rising demand for meat, milk, eggs, & animal protein and concerns regarding the increasing incidences of zoonotic diseases are expected to propel the growth of the porcine vaccines market during the forecast period. For instance, Vietnam is the third country in the world by per-capita pig meat consumption, with an average of 29.14 kilos of meat consumed in 2015.

Moreover, increasing number of biotechnology companies, research institutes engaged in research and development of porcine vaccines, and government initiatives for funding agriculture and animal husbandry sector are some of the factors fueling growth of the global porcine vaccines market. For instance, in 2014, the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) initiated a program to raise pig farming more efficiently. These program highlighted three factors to support pig farming, which include improving feeding through public-private partnerships, improving the breeding and housing of village pigs, and controlling classical swine fever, a highly contagious and potentially fatal disease of pigs. Thus, all these initiatives are expected to augment growth of the market over the forecast period.

Porcine Vaccines Market – Regional Analysis

On the basis of geography, the global porcine vaccines market is segmented into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East, and Africa. North America holds the largest market share in the global porcine vaccines market, attributable to highly organized farming structure, increased demand for animal protein, and rising expenditure on animal health by farm owners. Moreover, export and import permits among contract manufacturers or distributer firms and low estimated cost of products are expected to make the porcine vaccine market more popular in Europe. For instance, in 2016, a UK-based Cranswick Foods company initiated a project to set up pork processing plant in Punjab, which would act as a catalyst to hasten the process of value addition in animal husbandry sector and give boost to the farm diversification, providing high quality pork to the consumers across the state. The market in Asia Pacific (including Vietnam, the Philippines, etc.) is estimated to grow at a significant CAGR during the forecast period as this countries have large consumption of pig meat, which in turn is fostering growth of the market.

Porcine Vaccines Market – Competitive Landscape

Key players are introducing porcine vaccines with new features such as such as DNA vaccines, recombinant vaccines, and conjugate vaccines. This advanced vaccines are expected to improve the efficiency and effectively of swine production practices with reduction in overall vaccination cost.

Major players operating in porcine vaccines market include Bayer AG, Bimeda Animal Health, Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, Ceva Sante Animale, Eli Lilly and Company, Merck & Co., Inc., Sanofi S.A, and Vetoquinol, Zoetis, Inc.

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Adenovirus Diagnostic Testing Market – Identifying The Most Appropriate Treatment To Establish A Prognosis

Adenovirus is one of the DNA viruses that are considered to be a major cause of febrile illness, primarily among children. Individuals and Infants with weak immune systems, cardiac disease or chronic respiratory problems are at higher risk of developing adenovirus infection, however, most infections are not severe. Adenovirus is a communicable infection, as it is an air-borne diseases and can spread from infected person to others by coughing and sneezing, and close contact such as shaking or touching hands. Adenovirus can cause pneumonia, acute respiratory disease, epidemic kerato-conjunctivitis, acute follicular conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, and cystitis. Among infants, pharyngeal-conjunctival and pharyngitis fever are commonly caused by Adenovirus. In 2016, a study conducted by Barcelona Center for International Health Research and University of Barcelona, on children suffering from pneumonia, suggests that adenovirus is the second-most common respiratory virus causing pneumonia. Some adenoviruses can also spread through the infected person’s stools, for instance, during diaper changing. Adenovirus can also spread through water such as swimming pools, however, this is less common. Adenovirus infections can be usually diagnose by molecular methods or can be detected with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), serology, antigen detection or viral culture. Others emerging technologies such as liposomes, monoclonal antibodies, chromatography, flow cytometry, and gel micro droplets are also of vital use in diagnosis of adenovirus infection.

Adenovirus Diagnostic Testing Market – Driver

Adenoviruses are associated with a variety of nonspecific manifestations and clinical syndromes, thus diagnosis based upon clinical criteria alone is challenging. Diagnosis is most accurate when the infection shows outbreak symptoms or individuals show serious disease manifestations. Validation of adenovirus infection is essential for identifying the most appropriate treatment to establish a prognosis and initiate infection control measures by using correct antiviral agents, thus making diagnosis of these viruses a vital procedure. This in turn, is expected to augment growth of the adenovirus diagnostic testing market. Generally, there are two types of adenoviruses namely, Type 4 and Type 7 that caused severe outbreaks of respiratory illness, especially among military recruits. Thus, adenovirus vaccine, containing Type 4 and Type 7, is thus approved for military personnel aged 17 to 50 years from 1971, to protect them against the illness caused by these two viruses. In the recent past, adenovirus infections were diagnose by cell culture, as the virus replicates efficiently in cell cultures. Monoclonal antibodies are also used to detect infected cells using direct fluorescence antibody assays. Amplification and detection of adenovirus DNA by polymerase chain reaction methods are also gaining popularity as laboratory methods to determine adenovirus infection. The rapid detection and quantitation of adenovirus DNA, especially by a sensitive PCR technique is expected to aid in the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of adenovirus infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. This in turn, is expected to boost growth of the adenovirus diagnostic testing market during the forecast period.

Adenovirus Diagnostic Testing Market – Regional Analysis

Geographically, the global adenovirus diagnostic testing market is segmented into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East, and Africa. The market in North America is expected to gain significant traction, owing to growing public health concerns regarding various infectious diseases such as pneumonia, which are associated with adenovirus infection. For instance, in 2014, the eighth cause of mortality in the U.S. was influenza and pneumonia together, as reported by the National Centre for Health Statistics. The adenovirus diagnostic testing market is expected to gain traction in Africa markets, where a large number of children infected with adenovirus are underserved.

Adenovirus Diagnostic Testing Market – Competitive Landscape

Manufactures are offering various immunoassays for the detection of adenovirus antigen. SD BIOLINE Rota/Adeno Ag test, is one of the immune-chromatographic assays offered by Abbott, for the qualitative detection of the presence of rotavirus or adenovirus antigen in human fecal specimens. Furthermore, in 2017, Abbott collaborated with University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) to discover and characterize novel viruses as well as develop diagnostic tools to address the potential health threats cause by adenoviruses. Vendors also focusing on improving the quality of their assays by conducted surveillance projects at various hospitals, which in turn, is expected to create lucrative opportunities for growth in this market. For instance, BioMérieux SA conducted surveillance of rotavirus in hospitals and health centers in Niger from 2010 to 2012, using the RDT VIKIA Rota-Adeno assay to check their product accuracy. After receiving concerns regarding this test, company subsequently performed a parallel evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of VIKIA Rota-Adeno RDT test assay, which is a good alternative for use in peripheral health centers where laboratory capacity is limited.

Top Key Players

Player operating in the adenovirus diagnostic testing market include Affymetrix, Inc., Becton Dickinson and company, F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc., Novartis AG, Qiagen N.V., DiaSorin Inc., Abbott Laboratories, and bioMerieux.

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